The Significance of the _document.js File in Next.js

The Significance of the _document.js File in Next.js

Next.js, a powerful framework built on top of React, is designed to facilitate the development of server-rendered React applications with ease. It provides a set of conventions and defaults that help developers build fast, scalable, and maintainable web applications. One of the key features of Next.js is its file-based routing system, which allows developers to define routes based on the file structure in the pages directory. Within this system, special files like _app.js and _document.js play crucial roles in customizing and enhancing the application. In this article, we'll dive deep into the significance of the _document.js file, exploring its purpose, how it works, and when you should customize it.

Understanding the Role of _document.js

The _document.js file is a special extension point in Next.js that allows you to customize the entire HTML document structure. It's the foundation upon which your application is rendered, serving as the template for every page in your Next.js app. Unlike _app.js, which wraps around each individual page, _document.js is only rendered on the server side and is used to customize the server-side rendered (SSR) HTML document. This includes modifications to the <html>, <head>, and <body> tags, among other things.

Why _document.js is Important

  1. SEO Enhancements: Customizing the _document.js file allows for better control over the metadata and links in the <head> tag, which is crucial for SEO. By adding meta tags, custom fonts, or analytics scripts, you can optimize your application for search engines and improve performance.

  2. Performance Optimizations: Through this file, developers can manage stylesheets, scripts, and other resources efficiently. For instance, adding external CSS files or inline scripts can be optimized to reduce render-blocking resources, enhancing the overall load time.

  3. Branding and Theming: Customizing the <body> tag enables developers to set data attributes or classes that could be used for theming or branding purposes right from the server side, ensuring a consistent look and feel across the application.

  4. Global Settings: _document.js is the right place to include any global settings that need to be applied to the entire application, such as setting the lang attribute on the <html> tag for accessibility and internationalization.

How It Works

The _document.js file should export a class that extends Document from next/document. This class can then override various methods to customize the document's structure, including render(), getInitialProps(), and others. A typical customization might involve overriding the render() method to add a custom script or stylesheet.

Customizing _document.js

To customize, you first need to create a _document.js file in the pages directory of your Next.js project. Here's a simple example of what customizing the _document.js file might look like:

// pages/_document.js
import Document, { Html, Head, Main, NextScript } from "next/document";

class MyDocument extends Document {
  render() {
    return (
      <Html lang="en">
          {/* Add custom tags like external stylesheets or fonts here */}
          <Main />
          <NextScript />

export default MyDocument;

When to Customize _document.js

Customizing _document.js is not always necessary. For many applications, the default document structure provided by Next.js is sufficient. However, there are specific scenarios where customization becomes essential:

  • When you need to optimize your application for SEO by adding custom meta tags.
  • When you're including external CSS or JavaScript resources that need to be loaded before your application.
  • When setting global CSS styles that apply to all pages in your application.
  • When your application requires a specific structure for accessibility or internationalization purposes.

Advanced Customization and Use Cases

Let's delve deeper into the practical aspects of customizing the _document.js file in Next.js, including more advanced use cases and considerations that can help developers fully leverage the power of this feature.

Preloading Resources

One of the advanced optimizations you can perform in _document.js is preloading critical resources. Preloading can significantly improve your application's performance by instructing the browser to download key resources (like scripts, styles, or fonts) early in the page load process. This is particularly useful for assets required for the initial render or soon after.

Example of preloading a font in _document.js:


Setting Custom Attributes on the <html> and <body> Tags

Custom attributes can be crucial for theming, enabling dark mode, or setting data attributes used by scripts. _document.js allows you to dynamically set these attributes based on user preferences or other criteria.

For example, to dynamically set a class on the <body> tag based on a user's preference for dark mode:

<body className={userPrefersDark ? 'dark-mode' : ''}>

Injecting Server-Side Data into the Page

Sometimes, it's necessary to inject data into the page directly from the server. While this is not the primary use case for _document.js, you can use it to inject global variables or configuration data that needs to be accessible before your React application initializes.

For example, injecting a global configuration object:

      __html: `window.__APP_CONFIG__ = ${JSON.stringify(serverSideConfig)}`,

Considerations and Best Practices

When customizing _document.js, there are several considerations and best practices to keep in mind:

  • Only Use for Global Concerns: Since _document.js affects the entire application, it should only be used for modifications that are truly global. Component-specific customizations should be handled at the component level or through _app.js.

  • Optimize for Performance: While it's tempting to add several third-party scripts or stylesheets in _document.js, remember that every external resource can impact performance. Use preloading wisely and aim to minimize the number of external requests.

  • Beware of Flash of Unstyled Content (FOUC): Injecting styles or scripts directly in _document.js can sometimes lead to a FOUC if not handled correctly. Ensure that critical styles are loaded efficiently and consider server-side rendering or static generation for optimal performance.

  • Accessibility and Internationalization: Use _document.js to set language attributes and other accessibility features at the global level. This ensures that your application is accessible and properly localized from the start.


The _document.js file in Next.js is a potent tool for developers, offering unparalleled control over the entire HTML document. By understanding and leveraging its capabilities, developers can optimize their applications for performance, enhance SEO, and ensure global consistency in branding and theming. However, with great power comes great responsibility—use _document.js judiciously, keeping performance and user experience top of mind. Remember, the ultimate goal is to create fast, accessible, and engaging web applications that users love.

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