How do you handle authentication tokens in Next.js?

How do you handle authentication tokens in Next.js?

Authentication is a critical component of most web applications, allowing you to verify the identity of your users and secure access to resources. When developing a web application with Next.js, handling authentication tokens efficiently and securely is essential. Here's a detailed guide on how to manage authentication tokens in a Next.js application.

Understanding Authentication Tokens

Authentication tokens, particularly JSON Web Tokens (JWTs), are commonly used to maintain a user's authentication state. A JWT typically contains encoded data, such as a user's ID and the token's expiration time, which the server validates to authenticate API requests.

Choosing Where to Store Tokens

When using Next.js, you have several options for storing authentication tokens:

  • Local Storage or Session Storage: Easy to use but less secure as tokens can be accessed by any JavaScript code, increasing vulnerability to XSS (Cross-Site Scripting) attacks.
  • HttpOnly Cookies: More secure because they are not accessible via JavaScript and can be configured to be sent only over HTTPS, reducing the risk of CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) attacks.

Setting Up Authentication in Next.js

Next.js doesn’t come with built-in authentication support, but you can set it up using third-party libraries like next-auth or by manually implementing authentication logic. Here, we'll cover both methods:

Using Next-Auth

next-auth is a popular library for handling authentication in Next.js apps. It supports various providers (Google, Facebook, etc.) and offers built-in session management.

  1. Installation

    npm install next-auth
  2. Setup Create a file called [...nextauth].js inside the pages/api/auth directory and configure your authentication providers:

    import NextAuth from "next-auth";
    import Providers from "next-auth/providers";
    export default NextAuth({
      providers: [
          clientId: process.env.GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID,
          clientSecret: process.env.GOOGLE_CLIENT_SECRET,
        // add other providers as needed
      session: {
        jwt: true,
      jwt: {
        secret: process.env.JWT_SECRET,
  3. Using the Session You can access the session in your components to display user-specific information or protect routes:

    import { useSession, signIn, signOut } from "next-auth/react";
    function Component() {
      const { data: session } = useSession();
      if (session) {
        return (
            Welcome {} <br />
            <button onClick={() => signOut()}>Sign out</button>
      return (
          Not signed in <br />
          <button onClick={() => signIn()}>Sign in</button>

Manual Setup

If you prefer more control or need a custom solution, you can manually handle tokens as follows:

  1. Backend API for Authentication

    • Implement an authentication API endpoint that validates user credentials, generates a JWT, and sends it back to the client, usually set in an HttpOnly cookie.
  2. Storing Tokens

    • In the API response, set the JWT in an HttpOnly cookie:

        cookie.serialize("token", token, {
          httpOnly: true,
          secure: process.env.NODE_ENV !== "development",
          maxAge: 60 * 60 * 24 * 7, // 1 week
          path: "/",
  3. Accessing Tokens in API Routes

    • For subsequent API requests, read the JWT from the cookie, verify it, and allow access to protected resources.
  4. Secure and Manage Sessions

    • Implement middleware in Next.js to validate the JWT on each page request or use a global utility function to manage authentication state.

Security Considerations

  • HTTPS: Always use HTTPS to prevent token interception.
  • Token Expiry: Implement token expiration to reduce the impact of a token being compromised.
  • SameSite Attribute for Cookies: Set SameSite=Strict for your cookies to prevent CSRF.
  • Sanitize and Validate Input: Always validate and sanitize inputs to prevent SQL injection and other attacks.

Token Renewal and Management

Token Refresh Mechanism: For long-lived sessions, it is safer to implement a token refresh mechanism. This involves issuing a short-lived access token and a longer-lived refresh token. When the access token expires, the refresh token can be used to obtain a new access token without requiring the user to re-authenticate.

  1. Implementation Details:

    • On successful login, issue both access and refresh tokens. Store the refresh token in an HttpOnly cookie and return the access token directly to the client to be stored in memory.
    • Create an endpoint to accept a refresh token and issue a new access token if the refresh token is valid and has not expired.
  2. Refreshing Tokens in Next.js:

    • Use an interceptor with your HTTP client (like Axios) to catch 401 responses, indicating that an access token has expired. The interceptor can then call the refresh token endpoint to get a new access token and retry the original request.
import axios from "axios";

const api = axios.create({
  baseURL: "",

  (response) => response,
  async (error) => {
    const originalRequest = error.config;
    if (error.response.status === 401 && !originalRequest._retry) {
      originalRequest._retry = true;
      const { data } = await"/refresh_token");
      api.defaults.headers.common["Authorization"] =
        `Bearer ${data.accessToken}`;
      return api(originalRequest);
    return Promise.reject(error);

Enhancing Security

Content Security Policy (CSP): Implementing a CSP can significantly reduce the risk of XSS attacks by restricting the sources from which content can be loaded or executed. This is crucial when storing tokens in less secure locations like localStorage.

Regular Audits and Updates: Security is an ever-evolving field. Regularly update your dependencies to include security patches. Also, conduct periodic security audits to discover and mitigate new vulnerabilities.

Environment Segregation: Ensure that development, testing, and production environments are separate. Use environment variables to manage different configurations and secrets safely.

Debugging Token Issues

Debugging authentication issues can be challenging. Here are a few tips to help diagnose and fix common problems:

  • Check Token Expiry: Ensure that the token hasn't expired by decoding it (you can use libraries like jwt-decode in client-side code).
  • Validate Token Signature: Ensure that the token's signature is valid. A common issue is a mismatch between the secret key used to sign the token and the one used to verify it.
  • Inspect Cookies: Use browser dev tools to inspect cookies. Ensure the HttpOnly, Secure, and SameSite attributes are set correctly.
  • Network Requests: Check the network tab in your browser's developer tools to ensure that tokens are being sent correctly with requests and that the headers are correctly formatted.

Additional Considerations

  • Scalability: If your application scales, consider stateless authentication mechanisms like JWT that do not require server-side session storage.
  • Third-Party Providers: If using third-party providers (like Google or Facebook), ensure that their tokens are handled securely and consider the privacy implications of using such services.
  • Legal and Compliance: Be aware of legal and regulatory requirements, such as GDPR or CCPA, which may affect how you handle user authentication and data storage.

FAQ: Managing Authentication Tokens in Next.js


The most secure place to store tokens in a Next.js app is in HttpOnly cookies, as they are not accessible by JavaScript and are automatically sent with HTTP requests. Local or session storage can be used but are less secure due to their susceptibility to XSS attacks.

Implement token refresh by using a combination of short-lived access tokens and longer-lived refresh tokens. Store the refresh token in an HttpOnly cookie and retrieve a new access token using a specific API endpoint when the access token expires. This can be automated on the client side using an HTTP client like Axios with an interceptor that handles the refresh logic.

next-auth is very versatile and supports a wide range of authentication providers and scenarios, making it suitable for many applications. However, if you require highly customized authentication flows or need to integrate with a legacy authentication system, you might need to implement custom authentication logic.

To protect against CSRF attacks, set the SameSite attribute of cookies to Strict or Lax. This attribute tells browsers to only send the cookie in requests originating from the same domain as the cookie unless Strict is set, in which case even same-domain requests won't send the cookie with methods that can initiate cross-site requests.

If you suspect that an authentication token has been compromised, immediately invalidate the token on the server side and force the user to re-authenticate. Review your token issuance and storage practices to prevent future compromises.

To debug authentication issues in Next.js, start by checking the console and network tabs in your browser’s developer tools. Ensure tokens are being generated, stored, and transmitted correctly. Verify that the server correctly validates tokens with each request. Also, decode the token to check its validity and expiration details.

Yes, several tools can help manage token security, including:

  • To decode and verify JWTs.
  • OWASP ZAP: To perform security scans and find vulnerabilities.
  • HttpOnly and Secure cookie flags: Use these settings in browsers to enhance security.

Handle token expiration on the client side by checking the token expiry before making API calls. Use client-side libraries like jwt-decode to decode the token and check its expiry. If expired, use the refresh token to get a new access token automatically or prompt the user to log in again.

Be aware of laws and regulations such as GDPR in the European Union, CCPA in California, and other data protection regulations that might apply. These regulations can affect how you handle user data, including authentication tokens, especially how you collect, store, and process this data. Ensure compliance by consulting with legal experts or compliance officers.


Managing authentication tokens in Next.js or any web framework requires careful thought and consistent attention to security best practices. By implementing robust token management, renewing tokens securely, and debugging effectively, you can build secure and reliable authentication systems that protect user data and enhance the overall security of your application.

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